3D ground modelling provides an essential tool for planning site investigations, siting & designing infrastructure, and assessing geotechnical and geohazard risk.


Geo-4D have experience in reviewing, integrating and interpreting various site characterisation datasets in order to produce 3D ground models that document seabed and subseabed conditions pertinent to the planning and engineering design of a site.

Ground models can be initiated at any point in the project, but generally benefit from commencing at the pre-development desk study phase. As site characterisation data are acquired, these are integrated into the model to refine predictions and reduce uncertainties. The ground model is refined until there is an acceptable understanding of site conditions and hazards to allow for design and installation to proceed.





Data Source: EMODnet Bathymetry Consortium (2016): EMODnet Digital Bathymetry (DTM).

Evolutionary Geological Model

Geo-4D typically start a ground model by reviewing publicly available literature and available data to understand how the site and features at site developed and formed. This provides a robust framework on which to interpret and assess geotechnical conditions and geohazards at site.

Geotechnical Model

A geotechnical model is an effective method of interpreting and communicating predicted geotechnical conditions and uncertainties across a site, or along a cable/pipeline corridor. By reviewing, interpreting and integrating geotechnical and geophysical data, Geo-4D can produce a 3D model of geotechnical conditions across the site. The 3D model is typically presented as geotechnical zones which delineate the site into areas of similar geotechnical stratigraphies. Each zone is accompanied by a geotechnical profile and representative geotechnical parameter bounds, to an appropriate depth of interest

3d ground modelling to understand and predict engineering challenges

Geohazard Appraisal

The assessment of geohazards and their potential to damage infrastructure can play a large part in site selection and site feasibility studies, particularly for deepwater sites or frontier regions.

A geohazard assessment typically starts as as a qualitative terrain-based assessment at the desk study phase of a project, with the aim to identify the key geohazard constraints that may influence the infrastructure layout. The assessment can then become more quantified and probabilistic as site-specific data are acquired.

GIS Database

Geo-4D use Esri ArcGIS as part of the ground modelling workflow for collating, reviewing and interpreting datasets as part of a desk study.


An ArcGIS geodatabase, or selected ArcMap- or CAD-compatible rasters or features is delivered alongside the ground model technical report, as necessary.